Wednesday, November 20, 2019
North Korea history - Research Paper Example Ã¢â¬Å"Secretary of State Hillary Clinton warns North Korea may be put back on terrorist state listÃ¢â¬ (7th June, 2009www.nydailynews.com). After 64 years still the problem persists though in a different guise. South KoreaÃ¢â¬â¢s rapid economic development has catapulted the country into one of the most industrialized nations in the modern world while North Korea under communist influence of the former Soviet Union and China hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t progressed much. This outcome has produced a number of complex and diverse dilemmas for the countries, their leaders and citizens. Above remarks by Mrs. Clinton, the Secretary of State, refer to North KoreaÃ¢â¬â¢s persistent efforts at developing nuclear weapons and delivery systems disregarding the calls by the international community not to do so. Tensions between the two nations have been on the rise and right now there is the possibility of even a war if one side takes a rash decision to hit back. Her remarks about putting North Korea ba ck on the list of Ã¢â¬Å"terrorist statesÃ¢â¬ have acquired a new dimension against the backdrop of recent development in the peninsula. In the first place these remarks have such far reaching implications for both the region in particular and the world in general. Assuming a negative response, as usual, from North Korea under its reclusive despotic leader Kim Jong-Il, there would be much less of a chance to get him over to agree to measures that would ultimately reduce tensions in the region. North Korea in fact tested more atomic bombs and missiles just a few days ago.
Sunday, November 17, 2019
University of California Irvine Essay I believe that the best aspects about the University of California IrvineÃ¢â¬â¢s business program are its competent and highly knowledgeable educators, its friendly environment, and its highly-competitive and extensive curriculum. For me, these three aspects not only place the school as one of the top universities, but it also moulds students to become adept and highly skilled professionals in their careers. Furthermore, I believe that UCIÃ¢â¬â¢s business program would more than provide me with the necessary skills and knowledge that would enable me to become a highly competent and very successful businessman. In addition, considering the UCIÃ¢â¬â¢s well-established reputation, the school would also teach me the right attitudes and inculcate in me the proper values that I need to achieve my goals. However, aside from the fundamentals in business, the program would also allow me specialize in other areas such marketing, finance, accountancy, and management, among others. In other words, if am accepted into the program, I would have the potential to become not only a top-caliber businessman, but also an adept professional in marketing analysis, business management, and corporate accountancy. Moreover, the UCIÃ¢â¬â¢s campus has a very rich environment, especially the Aldrich Park, which is highly suitable for learning. For me, its amazing architecture and beautiful surroundings effectively facilitates interaction among peers and contributes to its studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ enthusiasm to study, which I believe are two important things that would help me in my professional and personal growth. Over-all, I believe that if am blessed and fortunate enough to be accepted in the schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s business program, I would no doubt be learning from best and as a result, I would be able to excel in any endeavor or any field I would choose.
Friday, November 15, 2019
Much of the awareness associated with Attention-Deficit Hyper-Activity Disorder (ADHD), has been linked to children and adolescents. The problem with that belief is that thereÃ¢â¬â¢s an ever-growing population of adults who have been diagnosed with the disorder and live with it day by day. The process of living with the disability, getting diagnosed and receiving treatment, is an interesting one that has begun to rapidly get attention over the past few years. The impact of this disorder can range anywhere from a mild distress to a problem that spreads into all aspects of an adults life. One of the main components to an adult living with ADHD is the work related one. Adults with the disability have a much higher probability of getting fired or quitting their job without putting any rational thought into it. Research by Weisler and Goodman (2008) suggests that adults with ADHD have a much harder time maintaining a job because of their constant impulsive behavior. The relationship between them and their supervisors can also be affected, the reason being that they have trouble meeting a deadline or constantly procrastinate on an assignment given to them (Stein, 2008). Research has revealed that they had a higher rate of divorce and separation (Weisler & Goodman, 2008). Adults with ADHD have a strong tendency to delay gratification and not be able to think of the consequences to their actions. They usually get frustrated sitting through meet ings and listening to others, this is one of the biggest roadblocks when it comes to them maintaining a job (Patton, 2009). An undiagnosed adult with ADHD can take the disability and adapt to it, never knowing that they actually might have it at all. They might never seek to attend college after hig... ...them up weeks before they were due. I would study for exams weeks ahead of time. To my surprise I started to do really well in school, I transferred over to SUNY Old Westbury and currently hold a 3.93 GPA. I went from being a C student, to an A student. Regardless whether I have ADHD or not, it does not make a difference to me. I found a way to succeed in school, by attempting something outside of the norm. I built my own methods and procedures for a path to success. I do believe that many college students go undiagnosed for years, sadly many of them drop out and never come back. The educational aspect of ADHD is one of great importance, that itself will lead to more adults connecting daily problems to a specific reason. Its not that they are lazy or incapable of doing the tasks at hand, the problem is that they do not understand the reason behind that obstacles.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Sometimes our past can cause pain that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t allow us to trust others. People we trust can cause us to put up a wall and look to other things for comfort. In the movie, Will Hunting found his comfort in books. Will Hunting needed a real friendship to help him open up his mind in order to discover that there is more to life than living through the books he reads. In the movie, there are four main characters, each different in many ways, that form individual friendships in the movie. One of the characters, Will Hunting works as a janitor at a Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). He is a foster child and is living life through his experience in books and lacks real life knowledge. This is holding him back from becoming intimate with anyone. While working there he sometimes writes on the schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s math department blackboard and is soon discovered as a genius. Will gets caught fighting and is arrested and in leau of incarceration is put under the supervision of Gera ld Lambeau, who attended and is now a professor at MIT. Under his supervision, per court order he must see a therapist and stay out of any trouble. Sean Maguire is a professor at a local community college and also grew up in the same town as Will and went to MIT. He is WillÃ¢â¬â¢s therapist and in the sessions challenges him to open up and stop living life through a book. A friendship develops and Sean tries to guide him to break his fear of intimacy. Chuckie Sullivan is a character in the movie that Will refers to as his brother. Chuckie is a nice guy with an aggressive attitude from being brought up in the rough side of Southie, Boston. Then there is a girl named Skylar, cute with a British accent and goes to Harvard University. She gets involved with Will Hunting and soon asks him to move with her to California where she will be attending at StanfordÃ¢â¬â¢s medical school program. Unfortunately, fear of intimacy prevents him from forming a relationship with her and breaks this friendship apart. Eventually, Will starts to see his true friendships with Chuckie, Sean and Skylar and starts to open up. He begins to trust others and takes a risk at experiencing life first hand outside the covers of a book. Will Hunting came from poverty, raised as a foster child in Southie. He didnÃ¢â¬â¢t trust people because he always looked at every angle of the relationship and assumed that in the end they wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be there for him. Professor Gerald Lambeau, who took pride in himself because of a Field Medals award which granted him public status, comes around to try to build a friendship with Will. Will soon realizes that Gerald is using him to gain social status, public recognition and to solve his difficult math problems. He then ends his relationship with Gerald because of his intensions. Then Sean, seeing what his former classmate, Gerald, was up to, soon becomes more than just WillÃ¢â¬â¢s therapist. Sean becomes a friend and tries to prevent Will from taking the same path as Gerald by only wanting social recognition. As WillÃ¢â¬â¢s Friend, Sean didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want him to fail. He wanted Will to succeed in life and take a chance and not just live it through a book. The doctor-patient relationship soon becomes a very close friendship. Towards the end of the movie Will leaves a note for Sean, Ã¢â¬Å"I had to see about a girl,Ã¢â¬ this was a quote from SeanÃ¢â¬â¢s story of his courtship with his wife. This lets Sean know he had decided to take a chance on life and to attempt to form a lasting relationship with someone he could trust. WillÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"brotherÃ¢â¬ Chuckie, who is really WillÃ¢â¬â¢s best friend, also wanted him to succeed in life. He tries to encourage Will to take a chance in living a real life and tells Will, Ã¢â¬Å"You know what the best part of my day is? ItÃ¢â¬â¢s for about ten seconds when I pull up to the curb to when I get to your door. Because I think maybe IÃ¢â¬â¢ll get up there and IÃ¢â¬â¢ll knock on the door and you wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be there. No goodbye, no see you later, no nothing. Just left. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know much, but I know that.Ã¢â¬ Will then sees that Chuckie might have a point and takes his friendÃ¢â¬â¢s advice. A few people come into WillÃ¢â¬â¢s life, some for real friendships and some just to gain public status. After discovering his true friendships, Will begins to enjoy their company and wants them in his life. He begins to build relationships he can count on. He is willing to take a chance and succeed in life and relationships, no longer needing books to fulfill this for him. He finally decides to trust and to look at the positive things life has to offer. On his 21st birthday, with the car, Chuckie and his other friends gave him, he packs up to head to California to pursue life. In the end, Will finds true friendships and decides to live his life outside of just a book.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
1- The presence of others can impact peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior in many ways. For example, social facilitation is a process where the presence of others causes you to perform better, but only on tasks that are easy for you; during tasks that are difficult, the presence of others causes you to perform worse. Another way peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior is impacted by the presence of others is social loafing, when people are put into a group to complete a task, each individual will perform less than they would if they were working alone.Deindividuation is another example, where being part of a group causes a person to lose their sense of individuality and have a reduction of constraints against deviant behavior. 2- Three factors that increase interpersonal attraction are the matching hypothesis, reciprocity, and the hard-to-get effect. The matching hypothesis states that people are attracted to those who are equal or similar in physical attractiveness; having this balance allows both people to f eel deserving of the relationship and stable in it.Reciprocity is an equal exchange of what we give and receive, for example, we like those who like us; if someone is attracted to you and always very nice to you, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll like and respond to that by being nice back and potentially being attracted to them as well. The hard-to-get effect is having the tendency to prefer people who are more closed off and selective with their social choices, rather than those who welcome everyone; so if one person is very picky with whom they date and only date few people, and another person will date anyone and everyone, we will try to date the person who is picky so that we feel that sense of accomplishment.
Friday, November 8, 2019
Expectancy violation theory Essay Example Expectancy violation theory Essay Expectancy violation theory Essay Expectancy Violation Theory and Sexual Resistance in Close, Cross-Sex Relationships Jennifer L. Bean Although previous research has suggested a link between sexual resistance and the violation of the resisted partners expectations, communication scholars have yet to utilize expectancy violation theory in a sexual resistance context. As such, the current study examines the resisted individuals perception of sexual resistance message directness and relational context in terms of three aspects of expectancy violations: violation valence, violation importance, and violation expectedness (Fall Meets, 998). Findings indicate that participants view hypothetical sexual resistance from a long-term dating partner as a more negative and more unexpected expectancy violation compared with hypothetical rejection from a cross-sex friend. Further, when a participant is hypothetically rejected by way of direct communication of sexual resistance from his or her close relational partner, such a violation was perceived as more relationally important than indirect sexual resistance. These findings broaden the scope of expectancy violation theory to include sexual resistance in close legislations, replicate and validate the study of three separate expectancy violation aspects, and highlight sexual resistance as a potentially important relational event in close relationships. Sexual resistance researchers have established that long-term romantic partners believe that they can expect success when initiating a sexual encounter (Byers Heinlein, 1989). Further, new dating partners find sexual resistance to be more unexpected than do either cross-sex friends or individuals in ambiguous male- female relationships (Meets, Cup, laminar, 1992). Despite these findings, no now research has specifically linked the study of sexual resi stance to expectancy violation theory (VET). To provide theoretical insight into the degree to which sexual resistance is expected across close male-female relational contexts, the current study examines the level of directness of a sexual resistance message and the relational context the message occurs in from the resisted individuals perspective within an EWE framework. Expectancy Violation Theory The field of communication has been instrumental in integrating theoretical foundations into investigations of sexual compliance/resistance situations. Specifically, aspects of politeness theory and facedown (Fall Lee, 2000; Meets et al. , 1992), uncertainty reduction theory (Edgar, Freight, Hammond, McDonald, Fink, 1992), and planning theory (Fall Lee, 2000) have been examined in relation Jennifer L. Bean (PhD, University of Georgia) assumes her duties as Assistant Professor at the Hank Greenness School of Communication, University of Nevada at Alas Vegas, on 1 August 2 3 1 nee autumn wellness to tank Jerry Hale, Jennifer Monomania, Jennie Cameron, and the anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments on the manuscript. Communication expectancies denote an enduring pattern of anticipated behavior and can be individualized to a specific person or relationship (Burgeon, 1993, p. 31). An expectation of another is violated when that behavior differs from what is typical or expected (Fall Meets, 1998). Such a violation results in cognitive arousal and a sequence of interpretation and evaluation that aids an individual in coping with the others unexpected behavior (Fall Meets, 1998). Moreover, when one violates a partners expectations, the partner is likely to be more attentive toward future messages relating directly to the nature of the relationship (Loopier Burgeon, 1994). In the interpretation stage of the VET model the valence of an expectancy violation is established and contributes to the overall assessment of how rewarding an interaction will be (Burgeon, 1993; Burgeon Hale, 1988). Fall and Meets (1998) have gently expanded EWE to include three separate, but related, aspects of how expectancy violations are interpreted: (a) violation valence, involving the extent to which the behavior is seen as positive or negative, (b) violation expectedness, defined as the extent to which the behavior varies from the range of expected behaviors, and (c) violation importance, characterized as the impact that the behavior will have on the relationship. This study extends these dimensions to the realm of sexual resistance. Sexual Resistance as an Expectancy Violation No known research has extended EWE to the study of sexual resistance between close Laotian partners. Never unless, TAHITI Ana Lee (UH, p. AY) note Tanat sexual resistance is likely a task that produces considerable uncertainty, cognitive demands, time-constrained information processing, and online adaptation, characteristics that are similar to the cognitive arousal, interpretation, and evaluation that often accompanies a partners unexpected behavior (Fall Meets, 1998). Further, sexual resistance is a situation that is highly vulnerable, volatile, emotionally sensitive, and accompanied by heightened emotional states and unique physiological changes (Edgar Fitzpatrick, 1988, 1990). Choices in sexual situations (such as resisting a close partners advances) could be caused by differing sexual goals and often result in conflict, frustration, and embarrassment for one or both partners (Edgar Fitzpatrick, 1988, 1990; Speeches McKinney, 1993). These characteristics of sexual resistance suggest strongly that its occurrence will result in the resisted parties believing that their expectancies have been violated. Two aspects of the sexual resistance situation-relational context and message directness-are particularly salient when considering sexual resistance as an expectancy violation because they eave been useful concepts in previous sexual resistance research (e. G. , Goldenberg, Genii, Salesman, Open, 1999; Meets et al. , 1992) and because relational characteristics and communication behavior represent two important considerations in EWE (Burgeon Hale, 1988). Relational Context Despite recent research on expectancy violations in cross-sex friendships (Fall 70 COMMUNICATION MONOGRAPHS Faulkner, 2000) and romantic relationships (Fall Meets, 1998), little is known about the effect of relational context on the interpretation of the violation (see Burgeon Hale, 1988 for a comparison between friends and strangers). Such a query is important, as relationship aspects are important factors throughout the expectancy violation model proposed by Burgeon and Hale. Specifically, relational characteristics such as prior history and liking are considered when one partner decides whether or not the others behavior is an expectancy violation (Burgeon Hale, 1988). One relational characteristic that seems important throughout the EWE process is the type of relationship the partners share. Put differently, societal and individual definitions of the relationship, acceptable behaviors between the partners, and implicit elation boundaries will likely play a significant role in how one interprets an expectancy violation. Thus, the role of relational context in the interpretation (I. E. , violation importance, valence, and expectedness) of expectancy violations logically advances knowledge both about EWE as a theory and the consideration of expectancy violations as three separate aspects. Though not specifically examining sexual resistance, Fall and Faulkner (2000) found that the presence of sexual activity in cross-sex friendships varied in impact according to both the violation valence scribed to the behavior and the extent to which the friends feelings and intentions rater ten sexual please were Known. Specifically, cross-sex Eternal tenant to use positive politeness strategies to resist sexual advances, possibly both to maintain the friendship and communicate sexual disinterest (Lee, 2001). Meets et al. (1992) found that sexual rejections occurring in new dating relationships were less expected, more face threatening, and more uncomfortable than rejections occurring in established, long-term cross-sex friendships and ambiguous male-female relationships. The current study extends Meets et al. Research by comparing two long-term close relationships, and by considering sexual resistance as an expectancy violation instead of as a face threat. Overall, sexual resistance between cross-sex friends is likely to have a significant impact because sexual interest and activity are moderately frequent but often ambiguous and confusing for both partners (Meets et al. , 1992). When considering long-term romantic relationships, Byers and Heinlein (1989) found that cohabiting couples were more lik ely than spouses to initiate sexual intercourse. Further, Quinn, Sanchez-Hushes, Coates, and Gillie (1991) found that males in long- ERM relationships would stop sexual advances such as overt attempts to kiss and fondle their partners more readily than those in short-term partnerships. Thus, preliminary evidence suggests that long-term romantic partners exhibit unique sexual compliance/resistance patterns. Little is known, however, about how long-term romantic partners perceive sexual resistance within their relationships. When comparing dating partners and cross-sex friends, sexual resistance between dating partners should be more negative, unexpected, and relationally important compared tit cross-sex friends. Because individuals in long-term romantic relationships were rarely unsuccessful in sexual initiations and are aware of their partners response to a sexual advance (Byers Heinlein, 1989), long-term dating partners will likely initiate a sexual encounter when they think the chances of success are high. In contrast, cross-sex friends are likely to view sexual resistance as a less negative, more expected, and less relationally important violation than daters because their relational definition does not include sexual behavior and their knowledge of friends captivity to sexual advances is likely to be fairly limited. The first hypothesis explores this possibility: 71 HI : Those being resisted by a dating partner will perceive sexual resistance as an expectancy violation that is (a) more negative, (b) more unexpected, and (c) more important than will those being resisted by a cross-sex friend. Message Directness In addition to relational context, message directness is relevant to the application of EWE to sexual resistance situations. Direct strategies in sexual situations indicate messages with clear intent and no ambiguity about what the persuader would like to occur, whereas indirect sexual tactics leave more room for doubt about the persuaders Intentions, provoking NV or nerd Walt plausible inelegantly (Eager Fitzpatrick, 1990). Both Fall and Lee (2000) and Meets et al. (1992) have found that participants preferred using direct sexual resistance messages that were also instrumental in protecting the face of the resisted individual (I. E. , Im not sure that were ready for this). In his language expectancy theory Burgeon (1995) proposes that individuals hold expectations about language that can affect whether or not they accept or reject a recursive message. Consistent with this idea, the level of message directness from the individual resisting anothers sexual advance is believed to be a potentially important consideration for the resisted individual when interpreting an expectancy violation. Learning about the relationship between message directness and expectancy violation interpretation in the sexual resistance context is important for two reasons. First, comparing direct and indirect sexual resistance messages potentially expands the scope of EWE to include a new communicative antecedent of the expectancy violation process. Second, research by Mangoes and Carrey (1996) on date initiation and expectancy violation theory suggested that whether one person initiated the date indirectly (I. E. , hinting) or directly (I. E. , asking) was partially responsible for the others expectancy violation with regard to the amount of sexual behaviors enacted on the date. This research suggests that a more focused inquiry into message directness and EWE is Justified. When considering the relational implications of sexual resistance message directness, Goldenberg et al. 1999), in comparing sexual resistance patterns in males ND females and American and Japanese cultures, demonstrated the positive relationship between use of indirect refusal strategies and the continuation of ones new dating relationship. Goldenberg et al. Focused upon new dating relationships and the participant cultural and gender differences when exploring sexual resistance message directness, which differentiates their research from the current project . Pertinent to EWE, Mangoes and Carrey (1996) reported that males had significantly higher sexual expectations when females directly asked them on a date, compared to the female indirectly hinting at date initiation. Even in long-term relationships, how directly sexual resistance is communicated can be related strongly to how that expectancy violation is interpreted. Thus, indirect sexual resistance should be perceived by long-term relational partners who are sexually resisted as a violation that is less negative, more expected, and less relationally important compared with direct sexual resistance. The second hypothesis examines this relationship: H2O: Both cross-sex friends and dating partners who are resisted will perceive partners use of a direct sexual resistance message to be an expectancy violation that is (a) more active, (b) more unexpected, and (c) more important compared to indirect sexual resistance messages. 72 Participants Data were collected from a college-age sample taking introductory and advanced speech communication classes at a large, southern university. The initial sample size was 342, but the elimination of individuals who did not respond to, or incorrectly answered, manipulation check items resulted in a final sample size of 307. Approximately 57% of the sample was female (n 0 174), with two individuals not reporting gender. The average age of the sample was 21 years (SD 0 2. 63, range 0 18- 0). Almost 89% of the sample classified themselves as White (n 0 272), 6% classified themselves as African American (n 0 19), almost 2% indicated that they were either Asian (n 0 5) or Hispanic (n 0 5), and 1% placed themselves in the other category (n 4). Two participants did not report their ethnicity. All participants reported that they were either straight (n 0 306) or bisexual (n 0 1). Almost 39% of the sample reported being single and not dating (n 0 119), 27% indicated that they have been involved in a committed relationship for more than 1 year (n 0 82), 15% stated that they were ingle and dating one person (n 0 45), 10% reported that they were single and dating many individuals (n 0 31), and 9% indicated that they were in a committed relationship for less than 1 year (n 0 29). One participant did not provide current relational status information. Finally, 69% of the sample reported that they had previously engaged in vaginal sex (n 0 213) and almost 30% reported that they had not yet had vaginal intercourse (n 0 91). Three participants did not respond to this item. General Procedures Participants received course research credit for taking part in the research. Their participation was voluntary and anonymous. Participants read and signed the consent form, and were then given the opportunity to ask questions about the project. To ensure privacy the researcher asked participants to not speak to one another while they were answering the questionnaire and also not to look at other students surveys. Participants then were given the written questionnaire, and told to take as long as they needed to complete it (1 5 minutes was typical). Participants read one of eight sexual resistance scenarios and then answered items intended to measure the realism and frequency of occurrence of the scenario in their own close legislations and items assessing perceived message directness and strength. The relevant dependent variable scales (violation valence, violation expectedness, violation importance) followed, along with two manipulation check items that measured the gender and relational context of the rejecter in the resistance scenario, items measuring participants level of sexual experience, current relational status, and demographic information. After they had completed the instrument, participants were given a debriefing form and an opportunity to ask questions about the research before being thanked and dismissed. Research Design and Pilot Test I nee Investigation employed a 2 (relational context: long-term cross-sex Eternal vs Eng-term dating relationship) 0 2 (message directness: indirect vs Direct) factorial design. The message directness independent variable was replicated so that a total of eight hypothetical scenarios were distributed randomly to participants, resulting in relatively equal distribution across conditions. 73 The scenarios, adapted from Meets et al. (1992), asked participants to imagine that they are either friends with or dating an individual named Chris, and then detailed a taxation in which the participants feel a sexual desire for Chris, attempt to initiate a sexual encounter, and are resisted. The use of hypothetical scenarios was employed to avoid participant biases in the recall and memory of actual sexual resistance situations that often accompany retrospective recall techniques, and to measure simultaneously participants immediate and direct response to the relational event of interest and provide control over the specific situations the participants were to consider (Unblock Solomon, 2002). To select four resistance messages that were fairly equal in levels of strength and erectness for each manipulation, a total of 10 resistance messages classified previously as direct or indirect by a variety of sources (Garcia, 1998; Meets et al. , 1992; Motley Redder, 1995; Unlearned, Andrews, Bell, 1996) were pilot tested using undergraduates taking speech communication classes at a large, southern university (N 0 50, 50% female). Each participant was asked to read six of the 10 potential messages and then indicate how direct and strong they found each message to be, using 7-point, Liker-type scales (e. . , 1 0 not at all direct, 7 0 completely direct). The number of participants who were exposed to each potential resistance message ranged from 25 to 30. A series of t-tests revealed that two indirect messages produced levels of strength that were statistically equivalent to one another and significantly more indirect than the direct messages: (1) Its getting late; and (2) He/she does not appear to notice your advances and instead asks you to change the channel on the television. Further, two direct messages proved to have statistically equivalent amounts of strength and were also significantly more direct and strong than each of the indirect assuages: (1) Please dont do that; and (2) l dont want to do this. Thus, these four resistance messages were used in the main investigation. Measures Scenario realism and frequency of occurrence. A number of items about the sexual resistance situation itself, adapted from Bean (1999) and Canary, Cody, and Marathons (1987), were presented. Specifically, three items assessed how realistic the situation was (e. G. , How realistic do you think this situation is? ), and two items measured how often or frequently the participant had actually experienced a similar situation (e. G. How oaten NAS tans salutation occurred In your own cross-sex Tarantellas/tattling relationship? ). All items were measured on 7-point, Liker-type scales (e. G. , 1 0 not at all realistic, 7 0 very realistic). As Table 1 depicts, participants found each of the eight scenarios to be realistic and easy to imagine, but did not experience these resistance situations frequently in their own close relationships. Because combining the realism items ( 0 . 91) and the frequency items ( 0 . 88) both resulted in internally consistent scales, two separate composite measures were computed. Sexual resistance message strength and directness. Strength and directness of the resistance messages were measured using items from Cameron (1998).
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
Definition and Examples of Abstract Nouns in English In English grammar, an abstract nounÃ is aÃ noun or noun phraseÃ that names an idea, event, quality or concept - for example, courage, freedom, progress, love, patience, excellence and friendship.Ã An abstract noun names something that cant be physically touched. Contrast that with aÃ concrete noun. According to A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language, abstract nouns are typically non-observable and nonmeasurable.Ã¢â¬ Ã But, as James Hurford explains, the distinction between abstract nouns andÃ other common nouns is relatively unimportant, as far as grammar is concerned. (James Hurford, Grammar: A Students Guide. Cambridge University Press, 1994) Examples and Observations Love is an irresistible desire to be irresistibly desired.(Robert Frost)Her face, which was long and dark chocolate brown, had a thin sheet of sadness over it, as light but as permanent as the viewing gauze on a coffin.(Maya Angelou, I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings. Random House, 1969)Creativity requires the courage to let go of certainties.(Erich Fromm)Silence can beÃ a source of great strength.Men say they love independence in a woman, but they dont waste a second demolishing it brick by brick.(Candice Bergen, quoted by Catherine Breslin in The Mistress Condition. Dutton, 1976)When love is gone, theres always justice.And when justice is gone, theres always force.And when force is gone, theres always Mom.Hi, Mom!(Laurie Anderson, O Superman. 1981)Fear is the main source of superstition, and one of the main sources of cruelty. To conquer fear is the beginning of wisdom.(Bertrand Russell, An Outline of Intellectual Rubbish. Unpopular Essays. Simon Schuster Inc., 1950) More than any other time in history, mankind faces a crossroads. One path leads to despair and utter hopelessness. The other, to total extinction. Let us pray we have the wisdom to choose correctly.(Woody Allen, My Speech to the Graduates. The New York Times, 1979) The Nature of Abstract Nouns Abstract and concrete are usually defined together or in terms of each other. The abstract is that which exists only in our minds, that which we cannot know through our senses. It includes qualities, relationships, conditions, ideas, theories, states of being, fields of inquiry and the like. We cannot know a quality such as consistency directly through our senses; we can only see or hear about people acting in ways that we come to label consistent. (William Vande Kopple, Clear and Coherent Prose. Scott Foresman Co., 1989) Countable and Uncountable Abstract Nouns Although abstract nouns tend to be uncountable (courage, happiness, news, tennis, training), many are countable (an hour, a joke, a quantity). Others can be both, often with shifts of meaning from general to particular (great kindness/many kindnesses).(Tom McArthur, Abstract and Concrete. The Oxford Companion to the English Language. Oxford University Press, 1992) Inflection of Abstract Nouns [M]any abstract nouns are generally not inflected for number (lucks, nauseas) or they do not occur in the possessive (the commitments time). (M. Lynne Murphy and Anu Koskela, Key Terms in Semantics. Continuum, 2010) The Grammatical Unimportance of Abstract Nouns [R]ecognizing abstract nouns is relatively unimportant, as far as grammar is concerned. This is because there are few, if any, particular grammatical properties that affect just the set of abstract nouns. ... One suspects that the reason for the recurrent mention of abstract nouns is the clash between their (abstract) meanings and the traditional definition of a noun as the name of a person, place or thing. The existence of obvious nouns such as liberty, action, sin and time is a sore embarrassment to such a definition, and the pragmatic response has been to apply a distinctive label to the problematic words. (James R. Hurford, Grammar: A Students Guide. Cambridge University Press, 1994) The Lighter Side of Abstract Nouns It represents Discipline, said Mr. Etherege. ... And to the uninstructed mind, Uniformity. His abstract nouns were audibly furnished with capital letters. But the latter notion is fallacious.No doubt, said Fen. He perceived that this incipient homily required punctuation rather than argument.Fallacious, Mr. Etherege proceeded, because the attempt to produce Uniformity inevitably accentuatesÃ Eccentricity. It makes Eccentricity, as it were, safe. (Bruce Montgomery [aka Edmund Crispin], Love Lies Bleeding. Vintage, 1948)