Sunday, May 24, 2020

Revenge And Betrayal In Hamlet - 1531 Words

The play, Hamlet by William Shakespeare, surrounds the central idea of revenge and betrayal. Revenge drives the characters and determines their actions throughout the play, which results in several instances of betrayal. With revenge, the friendship and loyalty of characters are tested and conflicts are established between characters. Hamlet’s father, the king of Denmark, was helplessly poisoned by his own brother, Claudius. Hamlet, the protagonist, becomes aware of his father’s death and finds himself seeking revenge and starting a cycle of hatred. Hamlet embarks on his journey for revenge by displaying an act of craziness. Throughout the play, there were several moments where Hamlet’s actions caused confusion and made it difficult for†¦show more content†¦In addition to his physical appearance, Hamlet’s actions and speeches are crucial evidence to determine how Hamlet is becoming crazy. In his first encounter with the ghost, Hamlet does not ques tion the nature of the ghost and obediently follows it. â€Å"It waves me forth again. I’ll follow it† (1.4.67-68). This example hints at the idea that Hamlet has become slightly crazy because a typical person would not pursue a ghost to the extent as seen with Hamlet. In Hamlet’s second soliloquy, he states that he will remember what the ghost told him and vow to take revenge on Claudius and Gertrude (1.5.92-112). Hamlet listening to a ghost and vowing to take revenge based solely on what the ghost told him hints at his slowly, yet increasing crazy attitude. Moreover, Hamlet’s madness starts to emerge after learning about his father’s death as his desire for revenge blinds him. Hamlet’s beliefs and thoughts are factors that should be considered when it comes to measuring how crazy he has become. In lines 121 and 122 of scene 1 of act 3, Hamlet states to Ophelia, â€Å"Get thee to the nunnery! Why wouldst thou be a breeder of sinners?† Hamlet expresses his strong belief at how women give birth to sinners and that sending them to the nunnery is the only method to prevent them from any more breedings of sinners. His strong desire for revenge has overwhelmed him so much that he has become somewhat crazy in the way that he is criticizing the innocent person and not theShow MoreRelatedRevenge By William Shakespeare s Hamlet1625 Words   |  7 PagesRevenge can be defined as â€Å"the act of retaliating for wrongs received†. William Shakespeare s â€Å"Hamlet† is considered one of his greatest plays and the plot is centered on revenge. Euripides Medea also shares a theme of revenge. While both central characters have been betrayed, resulting in their impending revenge, there is more than one theme of revenge in Hamlet, and there are differences in the ways all decide to handle their betrayals and the outcomes of their actions. In â€Å"Hamlet,† he isRead MoreHamlet, By William Shakespeare1088 Words   |  5 Pagesdifficult to understand for anyone that speaks the modern language. His story Hamlet is understood through the emotions felt by his characters. Hamlet is the main character who is conflicted with revenge and conspiring friendships. Hamlet returns home from Germany for his father’s funeral only to find far more troubling things. Hamlet is a conflicted character but that doesn’t stop him from knowing what he wants. Revenge is the main cause of his confliction but with great reason, which is importantRead MoreThe Foils of Hamlet Essay646 Words   |  3 PagesWilliam Shakespeares play Hamlet, the main character, Hamlet, has three major foils. These foils are his close friend Horatio, Fortinbras, Prince of Norway, and the brother of his love, Laertes. These three characters contradict and enhance Hamlets major characteristics. Hamlets friend Horatio is a foil for him because he brings out the revenge and betrayal in Hamlet. He is a listener for Hamlet. Horatio seems to be the only one who is sympathetic of Hamlet concerning the death of hisRead MoreEssay On Self Motivation In Hamlet1100 Words   |  5 Pages Within everyones lives, self-motivation affects the relationships that one has with others. In William Shakespeare’s play â€Å"Hamlet, Prince of Denmark,† characters struggle with adherence as they continually attempt to benefit themselves. Throughout the play, very few genuine friendships with loyalty were recognizable as the characters seek revenge to deceive Hamlet in the time of King Hamlets murder. When the benevolence and sincerity were true as Horatio had shown, personal gain did not interfereRead MoreWilliam Shakespeares Hamlet1284 Words   |  5 PagesSeeking revenge can cause a person to turn insane and blindly seek retaliation. Shakespeare’s Hamlet contemplates revenge throughout the story. Madness and revenge are similar themes in the movie, The Lion King, where the main character, Simba, is faced with the death of his father, leading him to do whatever it takes to seek revenge. This is where madness usually is introduced as a problem within a character, and this problem leads to the character doing things that they don’t usually do, sometimesRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Hamlet - Sanity Vs. Insanity1742 Words   |  7 PagesEnglish IV Mrs. Joyner Sanity VS. Insanity â€Å"Hamlet represents the mid period of the growth of Shakespeare s genius, when comedy and history ceased to be adequate for the expression of his deeper thoughts and sadder feelings about life, and when he was entering upon his great series of tragic writings† (The World s Best Essays from the Earliest Period to the Present Time). Hamlet’s actions are entirely too extreme for him to be faking his insanity. Hamlet is constantly on the brink of insanity, orRead MoreHamlet Betrayal1216 Words   |  5 Pagesloved you. Betrayal is an act of disloyalty and it is violating someones trust. In the play Hamlet by William Shakespeare, betrayal is a reoccurring action between many characters. This play shows the audience different types of betrayal that are imaginable, from a husband betraying his wife, a boyfriend betraying his girlfriend and a mother betraying the son and father. These actions of betrayal hurt the people that are most loved and destroys them where it most h urts in the end. Betrayal is one ofRead MoreTheme Of Betrayal In Hamlet1610 Words   |  7 Pagesbetrayed through some who you thought loved you. A betrayal is an act of disloyalty and it is violating someones trust. In the play Hamlet by using William Shakespeare, betrayal is a reoccurring action among many characters. This play indicates the target audience unique types of betrayal that is imaginable, from a husband betraying his wife, a boyfriend betraying his lady friend and a mother betraying the son and father. These moves of betrayal hurt the human beings that are most loved and breakRead MoreComparison of Hamlet and Claudius Essay1031 Words   |  5 PagesComparison of Hamlet and Claudius Relationships are very important today and they where very important in the past. Each relationship is different, some are good and some are bad. Good relationships can last a long time and sometimes forever but bad relationships can end very quickly. In some cases, relationships determine the direction life will take and they can change everything. Although love and relationships can sometimes be wonderful and happy, they can sometimes lead to things suchRead MoreThe Great Prince Of Denmark, Hamlet, By William Shakespeare1487 Words   |  6 Pagesthe plot and surrounding characters of his plays. One of his most famous tragedies, Hamlet, revolves around the great prince of Denmark, Hamlet, who encounters the apparition of his deceased father, the former king. The ghost asks that Hamlet seeks revenge upon Claudius, his uncle and new father, for it was he who murdered him and seduced the queen, as a plan to gain top status in society. Faking madness, Hamlet strives to kill Claudius, and although successful, many other lives, including his own

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Athol Fugard from South Africa - 863 Words

Historical, Social and Political condition Athol Fugard was born into the era of apartheid. The Fugard family was known as a very poor white family which affected the way he wrote his plays. Apartheid was known as a time in South Africa when whites were separated from the non-whites. White people were known as the â€Å"top dogs† and the non-whites were classified as the â€Å"under dogs† in the Republic of South Africa. Fugard was against apartheid due to the way he was living at the time. His father worked amongst non-whites and therefore made the poor Fugard family much like the non-whites. Fugard was completely against the apartheid and therefore, just like his dad, Fugard worked with black actors in his plays. The Government did not like what Fugard was doing, by working with black actors and therefore they punished him at times by either banning his plays or confiscating his passport. Apartheid was an era of violence and oppression. Oppression was part of the apartheid laws against non-whites. This caused most of the non-white population to go on strikes and try and fight their way through these ridiculous laws. Fugard wrote about the unknown things that were happening during apartheid. Fugard stood by the non-whites side to help them fight, by producing his thoughts onto stage. Analysing 2 plays written by Athol Fugard The Island: This play is a classic example of protest apartheid. This was well known as protest theatre. The play has four scenes and is based in a prisonShow MoreRelatedInternal Conflicts in Master Harold... and the Boys by Athol Fugards759 Words   |  4 PagesMost people cannot see reality as it truly is from their eyes. In Athol Fugard’s Master Harold†¦ and the Boys, he shows the apartheid between blacks and whites in South Africa. While some of these white people wanted to end apartheid, other people who lived with apartheid for their whole lives do not see the wrongs with it. These people want change, but do not know that they are the issue which is known as a psychological barrier. In the play, Athol Fugard uses Willie who struggles with a psychologicalRead MoreMaster Harold...and the Boys Written Task 2882 Words   |  4 Pagesgroup. In â€Å"Master Harold†Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ and the boys, written by Athol Fugard , social groups are represented in a particular way. In this case, Fugard represents South Africans creating a stereotype, creating characters like Willie that represents the cultural context of the play which is Apartheid and ballroom dancing in the 1950’s. Apartheid and Ball Room dancing are elements essential to the South African culture. In fact, the book takes place in South Africa in the 1950’s at the beginning of Apartheid, whereRead More The Effects of Racism on Hally in Master Harold and the Boys by Athol Fugard 1729 Words   |  7 PagesThe Effects of Racism on Hally in Master Harold and the Boys by Athol Fugard In the play Master Harold and the Boys, Hally demonstrates, through repeated acts and expressions, the sentiment of the entire African society at the time the play takes place. In 1950, the policy of apartheid was beginning to be practiced in South Africa. The Population Registration Act was passed, which divided the population into four racial groups (Post 112). The Group Area Act of 1950 controlled ownershipRead MoreHow Athol Fugard Presents Personal and Political Conflict in the Opening Scene of The Island555 Words   |  3 PagesHow Athol Fugard Presents Personal and Political Conflict in the Opening Scene of The Island Athol fugard presents the opening scene in a number of ways. The play is all about contrasts in personal and political conflict. The Island was written by Fugard to show the situation between whites and blacks in South Africa. When the play was first preformed it was more like a political play, but audiences see it as based more on the human spirit. After the apartheid had finishedRead MoreMaster Harold... and the Boys978 Words   |  4 PagesAthol Fugards drama, Master Harold . . . And The Boys, was written during a time of great conflict in South Africa, where he was raised. Fugard was torn between his mother, who was Afrikaaner, (1291) and his father, who was of English decent (1291). These differing influences caused Fugard to use the discussions between Sam and Hally to demonstrate the religious, racial, and political tensions of his lifetime in South Africa. brbrThe discussion between Sam and Hally about who was a manRead MoreEssay Wilders ´ Our Town and Fugard ¨s Master Harold and the Boys1040 Words   |  5 PagesWhen we remember an event from our past, is it not true that much of what we recall is a description of that event based on how it made us feel? That event had an effect on how we felt at the time, and what we describe when recalling that event is the sentiment, idea or feeling we experienced as a result of the event. In the end, the effect of what happened is what we deem important to us. However, think for a moment about any such event in your life. Is it possible to accurately describe that eventRead More Master Harold vs No Exit Essay1182 Words   |  5 PagesJean-Paul Sartre and â€Å"Master Harold†Ã¢â‚¬ ¦and the boys by Athol Fugard. The setting in both plays contain of one room that mainly consists of three major characters. The setting has an enormous impact on the behavior of the characters. The time period in which both plays are form also effect the style of writing and the characters. No Exit has an existentialist style of writing were as â€Å"Master Harold†Ã¢â‚¬ ¦and the boys was written in the apartheid era of South Africa. Both books have similar settings, but also involveRead MoreMaster Harold and the Boys Essay1179 Words   |  5 Pagesâ€Å"Master Harold and the boys† - Athol Fugard Mid 1950s in South Africa, a country in continuous turmoil by racism and segregation. Athol Fugard brings his play to life, by using symbolic metaphor techniques with a driving story of a young teen (Harold Hally) going through personal and family difficulty with his two colored servants (Sam Semala) and (Willie Malopo), this piece emphasizes more than the general issue of racism, it describes how sparks of hope can influence an individuals perceptionRead MoreEssay on Metaphors in Master Harold... and the Boys1139 Words   |  5 Pagesâ€Å"Master Harold†... and the boys, is a powerful play written by Athol Fugard that allows us to analyze the complex relationship between a black man and a young white boy within the context of racism in South Africa in the 1950’s. This play is characterized by metaphors used by the author to illustrate the struggle of people dealing with racism. One of the most important themes of this play is racism, focusing on the injustice in So uth Africa when the apartheid system was in place. Racial segregationRead MorePower Out of Control Essay1597 Words   |  7 PagesAthol Fugard’s â€Å"‘Master Harold’ . . . and the boys† illustrates that power is an issue that has so many people playing a part. Hally’s relatively short visit to his parent’s shop reveals so many problems within society in South Africa and around the world that still exist today. Everything from the interactions between the characters, to the title of the play, and even their choices of conversation all show that the thing about power struggles is that everyone ends up damaged. Fugard presents several

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Causes and Effects of Hunting Regulations - 930 Words

Cause and Effects of Hunting Regulations Hunting is a sport involving people throughout the United States whether it is done for a source of food or just for fun. Each year people across the U.S. spend over ten billion dollars on hunting activities and equipment. In order to protect species of wildlife, each states’ department of natural resources is required to develop numerous hunting regulations. Hunting regulations are basically laws set forth specifically for the hunting population. While these regulations are specified to correctively manage populations, they usually produce unintended effects of hunter safety (Conlin, Dikert-Conlin Pepper, 2009). In 2009 Pennsylvania Department of Natural Resources called for changes in hunting†¦show more content†¦The change to allowing the harvesting of both bucks and does was a measure taken in order to decrease the population of does. While the Pennsylvania Department of Natural Resources also intended to increase the average age of bucks. The advantage of settin g these hunting regulations will allow for better genetics to be passed throughout the whitetail population (Conlin, Dikert-Conlin Pepper, 2009). Developing hunting regulations also allows for the growth of job outlook in the field of wildlife management. In order to enforce all the regulations set on hunting, officers are needed to watch out over the hunters. Throughout Pennsylvania there is approximately 200 full-time wildlife officers and close to 700 deputy officers. The Pennsylvania Game Commission has also set up a phone line for hunters to report any accidents or harvesting of illegal deer (Conlin, Dikert-Conlin Pepper, 2009). Developing better management skills allows for people to build and operate hunting lodges throughout the state of Pennsylvania. Any hunter that harvests an illegal deer is obligated to deliver it to the Game Commission’s office with a written explanation of the accident. Where the carcass and statement will be examined to determine if it was really an accident or not. One game officer will examine every reported accident and decide what type of fine should be given or any other consequences. In 2003 if the penalty was nominal the fine was only $25 and $500 if it was aShow MoreRelatedSport Hunting Should Be Stricter Regulations1286 Words   |  6 PagesHunting was originally a resourceful activity and a necessity for survival. It was crucial to use the animal for food, clothes, and tools. With the exception of cultures who still depend on this method, there are many developed areas where this is not longer required. From the lack of needing to hunt animals for resources, sport hunting has emerged. This is the recreational act of killing animals to use as trophies. The problem with sport hunting is that it is an unnecessary and unreasonable activityRead MoreHunting Is Not Only Sustainable1464 Words   |  6 PagesHunting has been a way of life and means of survival for many different people groups throughout history. Today however, a large portion of society is becoming less tolerant towards hunting. This anti-hunting sentiment comes as a result of poor hunting practices in the past which damaged wildlife populations; however, much has been done since then to improve the practice of hunting. Hunting today both sustains and helps conserve wildlife. Hunting practices today are sustainable because of strictRead MoreHunting Should Be Allowed1412 Words   |  6 PagesShelby Morgan Professor Colon ENC 1102 July 17, 2009 Hunting Should Be Allowed Hunting is beneficial to our society and therefore should be allowed. Historically human beings have been pursuing wild animals to provide their families with food, clothing, and shelter. In modern times the need for hunting for survival has lessened because of the development of animal husbandry and agriculture. There were times in history worldwide when hunting became profitable and hunters began killing animalsRead MoreWhat s Merica Without Meat1657 Words   |  7 Pagesonly way their families got food. Hundreds of years ago a new invention was made that made hunting a lot easier. After many long years pass and many animals killed by bow and arrow, a new weapon was invented. The deer rifle is very efficient, powerful, and lightweight wich made it easier to carry around. Deer rifles also are a great invention because it help kill the animal faster and with less pain. Hunting was once the only way to supply food for your family, But as time went on it became a wayRead MoreFe ral Hogs Essay844 Words   |  4 Pagesa problem in middle Tennessee. Although these animals are not native to this area, it is believed that the hogs were brought in illegally for sport hunting. Although this move was ill advised, the wild hogs were trapped and brought into North Carolina and Eastern Tennessee. If not controlled, the overpopulation of these animals will continue to cause extensive damage for residents. Wild hogs have continued to overpopulate areas and in an effort to find new land and areas of food sources, have continuedRead MoreThe Interesting Industry of Japanese Whaling Essay700 Words   |  3 Pagesmore about a topic of my choice, I would study about the Japanese whaling industry. Although whale hunting in Japan began in the 12th century, Japan’s involvement in the whaling industry began in the 1890s. The international whaling industry functioned normally until 1925 when the League of Nations called for conservation measures in 1925. This eventually led to the Geneva Convention for the Regulation of Whaling in 1931, which was ignored by Japan and Germany. Instead, as whale catches diminishedRead MoreThe European Rabbit: Natures Pest and Promoter1614 Words   |  7 Pagesextensive research regarding the conservation of European rabbit populations. These researchers found that factors, such as over viral illness, abundant hunting and habitat destruction, have highly contributed to the decline, and lack of improvement in rabbit populations. They concluded that habitat regulation and hunting regulations reducing hunting during breeding season will effectively help improve the populations of the native European rabbits, as well as the predator populations that rely on theRead MoreEssays766 Words   |  4 PagesSample Narrative Essay A Hunting Trip News of the tiger’s attack on a woman spread like wildfire. This was not the tiger’s first appearance in the village. Before this attack, the villagers had lost a few goats and poultry but the disappearances remained a mystery as nobody could confirm that they were a tiger’s doing. Then the tiger struck. This time, the victim was a 32-year-old woman who was washing clothes by Tasik Bina. The villagers at once organized a hunting party. Armed with machetesRead MoreThe Dolphin Slaughter in Taiji Essay1133 Words   |  5 Pagesevery year between September through March,† Sea Shepherd3. Spear rods are used to kill the dolphins, and that technique turns the waters red with blood. Metal rods are now driven through the dolphins to cause paralysis.1 People should care about this topic because if the killings continue the side effect will be a rapid extinction of the Japanese Bottlenose dolphin, global mercury poisoning from consuming contaminated dolphin meat and major disruption in ocean ecology food chain. A journalist â€Å"Boyd Harnell2Read MoreWildlife Conservation in India1394 Words   |  6 Pagesof useful products like food, medicine, honey, lac, wax, resin, etc. * Colourful birds, insects, beautiful flowers, trees make environment beautiful. * Nature watch and excursions to natural forests and sanctuaries are thrilling experiences. # Hunting for fun or collecting skin, tusks, horns for sale has resulted in extinction of certain species. like the tigers, elephants ,cheetah some variety of birds. †¢ Wildlife Conservation is important for maintaining endangered rare threatened animals n

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Government Policies of Digital Divide †

Question: How Effective Government Policies Can Help Bridge The Digital Divide A Case Of India? Answer: Significance of the study It is significant for the students as it helps in enhancing their knowledge regarding the concept of digital divide and the efforts made by the government to bridge the digital divide in an effective manner in India. Along with this, it also provides information related to the challenges faced by the government to overcome the problem of bridging the digital divide in the country. Along with this, it is also useful for the future researchers as it helps in framing the background for their research (Mishra and Srivastava, 2016). Methodology For the purpose of collecting the relevant information related to the research topic, mixed method will be used i.e. combination of primary and secondary sources of data collection. In context to this, literature review method and interview method will be used. Interview method will be used to collect the information at first hand from the people indulged in the implementation of the initiatives related to assess the effectiveness of the government policies implemented to bridge digital divide in the country (Groat and Wang, 2013). Along with this, the sample size will be 65 respondents who are indulged in the initiatives taken by the government for reducing the digital divide. The use of literature review method helps in collecting information related to the research topic from the available literary sources such as books, scholarly articles, and online articles and authorized documents (McNabb, 2015). Along with this, multi-modal analysis method is used for gaining information rela ted to the research topic. This method facilitates in the interpretation of the language used in wide range of modes of communication and representation such as aural, gesture, gaze, visual and spatial modes of communication and relationship between them (Gifford, 2016). Research Method: Background The government has taken several initiatives for bridging the digital divide in India. The ministry of agriculture has launched Kissan call centers in the year 2004 for the purpose of providing solutions to the problems faced by farmers in an instant manner. This service is provided to farmers for 24*7. For the promotion of human rights and sustainable development a charitable organization has been opened by the government of named Life Line India in the year 2006. This organization provides a service of recording the question by the farmers through telephone for which they receive a recorded answer from the organization. This has been extended to approximately 700 villages and each day on an average 350 calls is received by the organization. In order to resolve the queries of the farmers a frequently asked questions database is created by the organization. This helps in resolving the problems in a quick manner (Venkatesh, Sykes, and Venkatraman, 2012). In addition to this, Bhoomi project is created by Karnataka government that covers approximately 66million of records of land ownership. The data bank created under this project is used in various public and private organizations. Besides this, the other initiatives taken by the government in order to bridge the digital divide in the country includes Gyandoot project, Toarahat project, CARD project, Sourkaryan and E-seva and Friends Project (Mishra and Srivastava, 2016). The Friends project is being launched by the government of Kerela. This project helps in elimination of the middleman to overcome the hardship of the citizens for making the payment of the taxes. It is a centralized collection center that accepts payments of all types of tax and utility in order to create value for the citizens of the state. This project has served approximately 13 million people in 12 districts of Kerela (Srivastava and Shainesh, 2015). Along with this, the government has also created community information centers for the purpose of rural development. The government make a use of e-mail and internet for communicating information with state and district officers. In addition to this, the government has also launched an e-chaupal project which is popular in the rural areas of India to provide information related to different crops and its prices in the market to farmers in their local languages (Hoque, Parker, Covaleski and Haynes, 2017). Significance This research study is important as it provides the information related to the reasons behind the occurrence of the digital divide in the country. It also helps in providing information related to the concept of digital divide and the challenges faced in bridging the digital divide in the country. Students and readers also gain information related to the initiatives and efforts made by the government to bridge the digital divide in the country. Along with this, it also provides information related to the improvement that has been occurred in the quality of the communication of the information to the target audience in order to solve their problems in different business sectors such as agriculture, land ownership and so on in order to improve the overall productivity and economic development of the country (Economist Intelligence Unit, 2012). In addition to this, it is helpful for different businesses as they gain knowledge regarding the policies established and implemented by the government to spread awareness about the knowledge regarding the sectors to which they are associated which helps in developing their skills and abilities. This in turn results in improving their productivity and performance. This helps in accelerating the economic development of the country. Along with this, it is also significant for the future researchers which help in the development of the background information to carry out the research in future (Srivastava and Shainesh, 2015). Aim The main aim of the research is to investigate the effectiveness of the implementation of the policies by the government to bridge the digital divide in the country. In order to attain this aim, there is a need to attain the following objectives. To understand the concept and current scenario of digital divide. To investigate the causes of the occurrence of digital divide in the country. Examining different efforts and initiatives taken by the government to bridge digital divide in India. To investigate the effectiveness of the policies adopted by the government of India to bridge digital divide. Research Question The question that will be investigated in this research study is How effective government policies can help bridge the digital divide in India? Methods There is a need to collect the information related to the current scenario of the digital divide in India along with the initiatives taken by the government to bridge it. The information is collected by the use of qualitative method such as interview method and literature review method. For this purpose the information will be collected from 65 respondents that are indulged in the initiatives taken by the government in order to attain information related to the effectiveness of the government initiatives towards the digital divide in India. The information is also collected from the secondary sources such as books, scholarly articles, online articles and official documents (Kara, 2015). The information related to the people being benefited from the initiatives is gathered as it helps in gaining information related to their contribution towards the economic development of the country. There is a use of multi-model method which takes into consideration different forms used to collect information such as textual, linguistic, aural and visual resources for the purpose of composition of the messages. In this method, the information from the respondents is collected by the use of different methods to which they are comfortable. This helps in maintaining the validity and reliability of the results of the research. The use of multi-model provides an opportunity to the respondents to provide information by the use of different aids in which they are comfortable. This approach helps in gaining valid and reliable information related to the research topic (Gifford, 2016). References Economist Intelligence Unit. (2012) Smart policies to close the digital divide. [Online]. Available at: [Accessed on: 4 October 2017]. Gifford, R. (2016) Research Methods for Environmental Psychology. USA: John Wiley Sons. Groat, L.N. and Wang, D. (2013) Architectural Research Methods. USA: John Wiley Sons. Hoque, Z., Parker, L.D., Covaleski, M.A. and Haynes, K. (2017) The Routledge Companion to Qualitative Accounting Research Methods. UK: Taylor Francis. Kara, H. (2015) Creative Research Methods in the Social Sciences: A Practical Guide. USA: Policy Press. McNabb, D.E. (2015) Research Methods for Political Science: Quantitative and Qualitative Methods. UK: Routledge. Mishra, R. and Srivastava, S. (2016) M-education in India: an effort to improve educational outcomes with a special emphasis on Ananya Bihar. On The Horizon 24(2), pp. 153-165. Panda, M.I., Chhatar, M.D.C. and Mharana, D.B. (2013) A brief view to digital divide in Indian scenario. International Journal of Scientific and Research 3(12), pp. 1-7. Srivastava, S.C. and Shainesh, G. (2015) Bridging the Service Divide through Digitally Enabled Service Innovations: Evidence from Indian Healthcare Service Providers. MIS Quarterly 39(1). Venkatesh, V., Sykes, T.A. and Venkatraman, S. (2012) Understanding e-government portal use in rural India: role of demographic and personality characteristics. Info System Journal, pp. 1- 24.

Sunday, April 5, 2020

The International Economy and International Economics

International economics are increasingly turning out to be an important sphere of research as global markets become highly assimilated. As matters of fact, governments, businesses and consumers have come realize that their existences depend on what is taking place within the international market.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The International Economy and International Economics specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More International economics is defined as a sphere of study that explores the outcomes of lending, borrowing, investment and trade on an international scale. Conversely, international trade looks at how macroeconomic models can be used to comprehend international economics. Some of the salient features of international trade include consumer behaviour, firm behaviour, perfectly competitive monopolistic and oligopolistic market structures, and consequences of market distortions. The gross domestic product (GD P) is an important economic variable that measures the economic conditions of an individual/country. The gross national product reflects the output of economic activities within a specified period of time. For instance, the GDP/capita depicts the economic condition of a person in a country. It is important to mention that the GDP per capita differs significantly across countries. Table 1 provides up-to-date data on GDP and GDP per capita for a selected cluster of countries. Inflation and unemployment rates are used to measure the economic well-being of a country. Inflation is an economic variable that compares consumer price indices between two different periods. For instance, a lower inflation rate means that the economy is doing well and vice versa. The latter (unemployment rate) is used to measure the percentage of the unemployed people within a country. Table 2 depicts inflation rates and unemployment rates for some selected countries. It is worth mentioning that some data in ta ble 2 are abnormal as a result of the economic meltdown that occurred in 2008. Some economists employ a government budget to gauge the performance of economic activities. Tax revenues are commonly used to fund public projects such as the construction of highways. Generally, a surplus in the government budget occurs when the amount spent by the government on public projects is less than the total amount of tax revenue.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conversely, a deficit in the government budget occurs when the tax collected is inadequate to finance public expenditure. It deserves merit to note that a Forex market is needed to facilitate transaction among different currencies in international trade. Many countries face the dilemma of whether to fix the exchange rate of their respective currencies or allow the rates to fluctuate according to the market dynamics. It is against this backdrop that the International Monetary Fund (IMF) was established to monitor and help countries solve their international currency dilemma. The IMF has created a list of currency regimes in all countries participating in international trade. The exchange rate systems adopted by some countries are depicted in table 3. The trade balance of a country is another key international statistics that indicate the economic well-being of a country. A country is deemed to have a trade surplus if the value of total goods exported surpasses the value of the total goods imported. On the other hand, a nation is considered to be experiencing trade deficits if the aggregate quantity of goods imported surpass the aggregate quantity of goods exported. This information is critical because it enables economists to describe the international investment position (IIP) of a country. It is worth mentioning that the IIP is an economic indicator that measures the aggregate value of foreign properties o wned by local inhabitants minus the aggregate value of domestic properties owned by foreign persons. The world has experienced several economic crises since the last century. The most recent one occurred in 2008 when world output declined and unemployment rate increased. What is more, there was a substantial decline in international trade as both domestic and international investments shrank. An economic recession usually occurs when the real gross domestic product of a country declines in addition to a rise in the aggregate rate of unemployment over a specified period of time. Thus, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank were established in order to curb economic crises. For instance, the main goal of the World Bank is to offer grants and loans to foster economic development among poor countries. On the other hand, the IMF is mainly tasked with monitoring the international exchange rate systems as well as offering short-term loans to countries experiencing balance of payments (BOP) problems.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The International Economy and International Economics specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More National Income and Product Accounts The national income depicts the aggregate amount of money generated by factors of production within a year. Some components of the national income include profits, rents and wages. The national product (national output) depicts the market value of all final goods and services generated within an economy during a given year. Figure 1 depicts the circular flow of money within an economy. It deserves merit to mention that the national income (value of total income) should be equivalent to the national product (value of total output). As noted earlier, the gross domestic product reflects the output of economic activities within a country in a specific period of time. On the other hand, the gross national product (GNP) measures the tot al amount of goods and services produced using domestic factors of production. The GNP includes all production activities that occur within and outside the country. The national income defines the manner in which the GDP is computed. The equation below shows that the gross domestic product is an aggregation of the consumption (C), investment (I), government spending (G), and expenses on exports (XE) less expenses for imported goods (ME): GDP = C + I + G + XE − ME The consumption variable of the equation (C) represents domestic and/or foreign products and services procured by residents. Investments (I) denote the costs incurred while undertaking fixed investments. XE denotes the total amount of goods exported to other countries. ME denotes the total goods procured from another country. G denotes the total amount spend by the government on public projects (i.e. Construction of highways). Imports are usually deducted from the GDP equation since imported goods are a subset of the government, investment and consumption expenditures. In other words, the gross domestic product level is not directly affected by imports.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The balance of payment (BOP) accounts is a documentation of the financial transactions between the inhabitants of one country with the rest of the world within a specified fiscal year. The BOP account is composed of several smaller accounts. These include current account (CA), merchandise trade account, services account, goods and services account, and financial account. The following equation represents the CA balance: CA = XEG,S, IPR, UT-MEG, S, IPR, UT Where G= includes imports and exports of goods; S= services; IPR= income payments and receipts; and UT= unilateral transfers. A country is deemed to have a surplus current account if current account0. This means that the value of exports surpasses the value of imports. If the current account0, then the country has a deficit current account because imports are greater than exports. The trade balance shows various ways to record the difference between imports and exports. The merchandise trade balance is somewhat constricted in measu ring trade between countries dealing with traded products. Finally, the financial account balance measures the aggregate imports and exports. The international investment position (IIP) of a country can be compared to a balance sheet since it reveals the aggregate foreign assets owned by domestic inhabitants and the aggregate domestic assets held by foreigners within a specified period of time. Consequently, a nation’s net position with respect to international trade is either surplus or deficit. If the net position is a surplus, then it implies that the aggregate value of foreign assets owned by domestic inhabitants surpasses the aggregate value of domestic assets owned by foreign inhabitants. Statistics suggest that the United States is arguably the biggest debtor country in the world. In other words, the country’s IIP is in deficit and the monetary value of that shortage is the biggest in the world. For example, in 2008, the amount of money the US owed the rest of t he world was estimated at $3.47 trillion. Although some Americans are worried about the numerical size of the debt, it is worth mentioning that this debt is less than 25% of the country’s annual GDP. Overview of Trade Imbalances Some people consider a trade surplus to be a good thing and a trade deficit a bad one. However, a trade surplus/deficit can be good or bad subject to the prevailing economic conditions. A trade surplus occurs when exports surpass imports whereas a trade deficit emerges when imports surpass exports. Some people suggest that trade deficits usually results in loss of jobs in the economy. Nonetheless, when all outcomes of trade imbalances are considered, a trade deficit can only result in short-term job losses. It has been demonstrated that there exists an inverse relationship between trade deficits and the unemployment rate. For instance, figure 2 shows the trade deficit and unemployment in the United States between 1980 and 2009. According to figure 2, when the trade deficit increases, the unemployment level decreases. This phenomenon contradicts the earlier perception that trade deficits cause job loss in an economy. In a nutshell, trade deficits, when assessed with respect to their short-term and long-term economic effects, can bring about positive or negative effects depending on the prevailing economic conditions. For example, a trade deficit may indicate extreme borrowing that could result in a significant decline in the living standards since more resources are redirected to service accumulated debt. In this condition, a trade deficit is clearly disastrous for the economy. On the other hand, a trade deficit can augment domestic investments and eventual stimulate economic growth. In this case, debt repayment can be achieved without compromising the living standards of the households. What is more, a trade surplus may simply reflect discreet foreign savings as well as procurement of foreign assets in order to finance the pensi on scheme. In this condition, a trade surplus may prove to be useful for the economy. In addition, a trade surplus can also depict a period of reimbursement of previous debt. This situation may be tolerable if it is accomplished in harmony with the rising standards of living. Nevertheless, if the trade surplus emerges during a period characterized by a declining gross domestic product, then the trade surplus would occur when the living standards are declining. In this situation, a trade surplus would be a bad thing for the economy. Nonetheless, problems associated with trade deficit can be alleviated via an increase in the gross national product (GNP). In order to assess the trade imbalance of a country, one should start by establishing the country’s investment status (net international asset). A country’s investment status is comparable to a balance sheet which reveals the aggregate foreign assets held by domestic inhabitants. It also reveals the aggregate domestic as sets held by foreigners within a specified period of time. As a result, a nation will be in a credit position if the value of foreign properties owned by its citizens transcends the value of local propertied owned by foreign inhabitants. Conversely, a country is said to be in a debtor position if the aggregate amount of domestic assets held by foreigners surpasses the aggregate amount of foreign assets held by domestic inhabitants. There are four potential trade imbalance situations that a country might encounter. These are: (1) a creditor country experiencing a trade surplus, (2) a debtor country experiencing a trade surplus, (3) a creditor country experiencing a trade deficit, and (4) a debtor country facing a trade surplus. Figure 3 shows an assortment of potential investment positions a country might face in an international arena. The left side of the figure implies that the nation is a net debtor while the right side implies that the nation is a net creditor. There are importa nt observations that can be derived from the situations above. First, trade deficits are harmful to the economy when the prospect for economic growth is low and the country is facing enormous international debt. Second, trade deficits may be less harmful if the nation is in a credit position. What is more, trade deficits are less harmful if they take place in an environment characterized by increasing investments that spur economic growth. Third, a trade surplus can be harmful to the economy if it increases while the country is in a debt position. Finally, a trade surplus is harmful when the repayments of debts in the future will be lower than projected. The Forex: Participants and Objectives The foreign exchange market entails currency trading by key international banks. These international actors (banks) function as mediators between real sellers and buyers of currencies such as individuals, businesses and governments. In many cases, the international banks keep foreign currency r eserves and are prepared to swap them for local currency when the demand increases. Although each bank can set the exchange rate (ER), the market forces of supply and demand will eventually determine the real exchange rate. To put it another way, each bank establishes the ER at each period in order to balance the demand and supply of foreign currency in the Forex market. It is important to make out two different sets of partakers in the foreign exchange market. The firsts set consists of partakers whose transactions are documented on the current account. The second set comprises of partakers whose transactions are captured on the financial accounts. An individual who engages in exports or imports of merchandise must swap currencies in order to complete the transaction. For that matter, tourists and investors who travel overseas usually participate in the Forex market to swap their currencies. Investors usually engage in the Forex market on a daily basis. These investors include comm ercial banks, insurance firms and investment firms which engage in the Forex market in order to reap maximum profits on their investments or assets. What is more, some of these investors usually manage the assets owned by other parties. For example, insurance and investment firms handle hefty investment portfolios which represent capital utilized to compensate claims on deaths and accidents. A substantial number of these firms have forayed in international Forex markets in order to maximize the returns on their investments. For instance, the Bank of International Settlement spends approximately $3 trillion worth of currency in the Forex market each day. There are three main objectives that drive the investment decisions of investors. First, investors are concerned with the rate of return on their investments. Investors are usually attracted by investment portfolios that promise a high rate of return on their investments. Second, investors are concerned with the level of the risk pos ed by the asset. It is important to mention that there is a direct relationship between the level of risk and the anticipated rate of return. Therefore, the main issue of concern for investors is how to handle the exchange between investment returns and risk. Liquidity is the third issue of concern for investors. It basically implies the rate at which investment portfolios can be converted to cash. Insurance firm must hold investment assets that are somewhat easy to convert to cash in order to meet compensation claims that arise suddenly. Commercial banks must also invest in fairly liquid assets that can be easily converted to cash in order to fulfil cash requirements of their depositors. The exchange rate is defined as the amount of units that a given currency is swapped for one unit of another currency. For instance, the exchange rate between a British pound and a US dollar can be expressed as  £/$. In addition, the value/worth of currency can only be ascertained by by comparing it to another currency. A currency is considered to have appreciated if its value/worth increases in comparison to another. On the other hand, currency depreciation implies that the value of a given currency declines with respect to another currency. There are several exchange rate terms that are commonly used in the Forex market. For instance, currency arbitrage implies purchasing a currency at a lower rate in one market (i.e. London) and reselling it later at a higher rate in another market (i.e. New York). The spot exchange rate is defined as the exchange rate that facilitates trading to occur right away. Forward exchange rate reflects the value of the exchange rate on trades that will occur in the future to fulfil a prearranged agreement. Finally, hedging is defined as activities performed to minimize the risks that emanate from currency trading. Appendix Figure 1: A Circular Flow Diagram Figure 2: U.S. Trade Deficits and Unemployment 1980–2009 Figure 3: International Asset Positions Table 1: GDP and GDP per Capita (PPP in Billions of Dollars), 2009 Country/Region (Rank) GDP (Percentage in the World) GDP per Capita (Rank) World 68,997 (100) 10,433 European Union (1) 15,247 (22.1) — United States (2) 14,265 (20.7) 47,440 (6) China (3) 7,916 (11.5) 5,970 (100) Japan (4) 4,354 (6.3) 34,116 (24) India (5) 3,288 (4.8) 2,780 (130) Russia (7) 2,260 (3.3) 15,948 (52) Brazil (10) 1,981 (2.9) 10,466 (77) South Korea (14) 1,342 (1.9) 27,692 (33) Indonesia (17) 908 (1.3) 3,980 (121) Kenya (82) 60 (nil) 1,712 (148) Ghana (96) 34 (nil) 1,518 (152) Burundi 158) 3 (nil) 390 (178) Table 2: Unemployment and Inflation Rates Country/Region Unemployment Rate (%) Inflation Rate (%) European Union 9.8 (Oct. 2009) +0.5 (Nov. 2009) United States 10.0 (Nov. 2009) +1.8 (Nov. 2009) China 9.2 (2008) +0.6 (Nov. 2009) Japan 5.1 (Oct. 2009) −2.5 (Oct. 2009) India 9.1 (2008) +11.5 (Oct. 2009) Russia 7.7 (Oct. 2009) +9. 1 (Nov. 2009) Brazil 7.5 (Oct. 2009) +4.2 (Nov. 2009) South Korea 3.5 (Nov. 2009) +2.4 (Nov. 2009) Indonesia 8.1 (Feb. 2009) +2.4 (Oct. 2009) Spain 19.3 (Oct. 2009) +0.3 (Nov. 2009) South Africa 24.5 (Sep. 2009) +5.8 (Nov. 2009) Estonia 15.2 (Jul. 2009) −2.1 (Nov. 2009) Table 3: Exchange Rate Regimes Country/Region Regime Euro Area Single currency within: floating externally United States Float China Crawling peg Japan Float India Managed float Russia Fixed to composite Brazil Float South Korea Float Indonesia Managed float Spain Euro zone; fixed in the European Union; float externally South Africa Float Estonia Currency board This essay on The International Economy and International Economics was written and submitted by user Linda Collier to help you with your own studies. 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Sunday, March 8, 2020

James Baldwins essays

James Baldwin's essays James Baldwin: The Price of the Ticket The African-American author known as James Baldwin was born in Harlem, New York in 1924. In his childhood, Baldwin was a voracious reader. He read every book that he could get his hands on at his local library, which he visited several times a week. As his lust for reading grew, so blossomed his writing. By the age of 8 or 9, Baldwin had written his schools song, Farwell To 24. His mother encouraged his eagerness to write, but his father, a preacher, wanted him to follow in his footsteps. His father also felt that Baldwins writing was not intended for the black race, but rather the white. Their differences eventually go so great that Baldwin finished high school and left home. After high school, he worked in several different jobs and finally started his literary apprenticeship. In the early 1940s, Baldwin worked some in New Jersey, and in 1943 he began writing full-time. He tried his hand at writing here in the United States, but quickly realize that it was almost impossible. In 1948, he left for Paris. While in Paris, Baldwins work became world renowned. Baldwin traveled extensively , and with every place, he wrote a novel. Some were controversial covering topic such as sexuality, and personal identity. Most were based on the civil struggles that was occurring in the United States. He returned to the United States in the early 60s in order to become involved in The Civil Rights Movement. He lost many good friends during The Civil Rights Movement, including Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. After the assassination of King, Baldwin returned to Paris in the early 70s. While back in Paris, Baldwin suffered writers block. He bitterly started to acknowledge that violence may be the only route to racial justice. In 1983, Baldwin became Five College Pro fessor in the African-American Studies department of the University of...

Friday, February 21, 2020

Determination the Role of the US in War Research Paper

Determination the Role of the US in War - Research Paper Example It tends to be forgotten that war affects all people in a nation. Not just the soldiers who fight on the front lines or their families who must deal with their absences and deaths, but everyone living within that nation. In his speech, Charles Lindberg declared the importance of listening to the nation as a whole as it is the whole nation who is subjected to war and not just a few individuals. This opinion has altered the way that war is viewed. Instead of war being an act of simple revenge, fighting regardless of the outcome, war has become a game that we, as players on the same team, must win. To successfully win, we have to remember the entirety of our nation when we consider starting or entering the war. The position of the United States in war has led to a vital development in society, one in which every person’s opinions, through voting, are taken to heart and the majority wins. As Lindberg stated, â€Å"There is no better way to give comfort to an enemy than to divide the people of a nation over the issue of foreign war.†1 When a nation finds itself in its own battle with citizen pinned against citizen, they are only making themselves easier targets for their enemies. Should they enter a war with their own drama, they stand no chance at winning. When Lindberg gave his speech, he was providing the United States with one of the most effective methods of success that this nation can have when subjected to war: unity. This is why America boasts of its democracy, and it shows especially during times of war.